Holocaust » Overview

Overview

Over the last half century a great many programs on Holocaust education and initiatives on Holocaust remembrance have been launched and continue to be implemented in countries primarily located in Europe and North America and Israel, most of whom are members of the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA). However, little is known about programs and initiatives on the subject outside of IHRA.

Salzburg Global Seminar, together with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, seeks to bring greater awareness of Holocaust education and remembrance programs in other countries with the objective of fostering dialogue, promoting tolerance, and providing a knowledge-sharing resource platform.

“I am honoured to have been associated with this project since its inception in 2009. Working together, the Seminar and the Museum have brought together scholars, educators and policy makers from different academic disciplines, and from many different parts of the world, to consider how far, and in what ways, education about the Holocaust and other genocides can actually contribute to the prevention of further such tragedies in the future.”

- Kofi Annan

Visit the country profile pages for more detailed  information.
For information on Holocaust education around the world, please download:

GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES ON HOLOCAUST EDUCATION: Trends, Patterns, and Practices, a publication of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum and Salzburg Global Seminar, 2013

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Learning from the Past - Promoting Pluralism and Countering Extremism
Learning from the Past: Promoting Pluralism and Countering Extremism
Learning from the Past - Promoting Pluralism and Countering Extremism
Chris Hamill-Stewart 
Eighty years since the first Jewish detainees were killed in the Dachau Concentration Camp, the world is still grappling with the question of how the Holocaust was able to happen. In the decades that followed, the political slogan “Never Again” has rung hollow in societies affected by other 20th century genocides in Cambodia, Bosnia and Rwanda. The question remains: How can genocide be prevented? The Salzburg Global Seminar session Learning from the Past: Promoting Pluralism and Countering Extremism, part of the Salzburg Global series Holocaust Education and Genocide Prevention, taking place December 1 to 3 at Schloss Leopoldskron, Salzburg, Austria, will address this question in more expanded context than in previous programs to examine political extremism in countries across the world. Through a series of global and regional gatherings, and in partnership with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, the Program has already engaged participants from more than 30 countries since its inauguration in 2010, the majority of which are outside the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance, and many of which have a recent experience of mass atrocities.Learning from the Past: Promoting Pluralism and Countering Extremism, with support from the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office, will bring together representatives from schools, museums, remembrance sites, and other institutions seeking to maximize their impact in combatting extremism. The session will focus on countries where recent mass atrocities or discrimination have made them particularly susceptible to a rise in extremism that threatens their communities, regions, and the world. Participants will be encouraged to examine the history of the Holocaust as an example of what can happen when hatred goes unchecked and to search out contemporary connections, including the role played by anti-Semitism and other forms of intolerance in the participating countries. They will use highly collaborative workshops to exchange expertise and experiences, drawing upon this to draft plans for their institutions’ development.  “The participants coming to Salzburg for this session are looking for ways to reach out to the youth in their countries, particularly those who feel somehow marginalized,” says Salzburg Global Program Director Charles Ehrlich. “Those in rural, remote, or disadvantaged backgrounds are also particularly vulnerable – the session will help them learn the lessons of the past, and help them create a world and a future that they want to live in.”This year’s session will lay the groundwork for the following year, in which peer advisory visits to participating countries will connect educators, activists, and others dedicated to preventing mass atrocities and genocide to advance knowledge exchange, test institutional development plans, and design long-term institutional strategies to combat extremism and its consequences.  Scholars, educators and policy makers agree that Holocaust education can be an effective tool for educating students and the public about the importance of protecting democracy and human rights. Holocaust education helps to prevent racism and anti-Semitism, and promotes mutual respect between people of different races, religions, and cultures. This Salzburg Global session will be another important part of the process of using lessons learned from the Holocaust to turn “Never Again” from a political slogan, into a reality. The Salzburg Global session Learning from the Past: Promoting Pluralism and Countering Extremism is part of the multi-year series Holocaust Education and Genocide Prevention. The series is being hosted in partnership with The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum and with support from the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office. More information on the session can be found here: www.salzburgglobal.org/go/564  
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Report now online Living Arts in Post Conflict Contexts: Practices, Partnerships, Possibilities
Report now online Living Arts in Post Conflict Contexts: Practices, Partnerships, Possibilities
Jessica Franzetti 
The report from the inaugural session Living Arts in Post Conflict Contexts: Practices, Partnerships, Possibilities is now available online to read, download and share. In 1975, the Khmer Rouge launched a genocidal regime in which 2 million Cambodians died – including 90% of the artists working in the country. In 2016, the Cambodian art scene, with Phnom Penh at its heart, has reemerged as the country’s population, 60% of whom are under 25, utilize the arts to rebuild, unify, and renew their unique cultural traditions. In collaboration with Cambodian Living Arts and with sponsorship from the Prince Claus Fund for Culture and Development, 45 delegates from 24 countries were invited to discuss the critical challenges facing a post-conflict nation and the role that arts and culture can play as a vehicle for positive change. Held in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, where post-conflict transformation is a lived reality, the three-day workshop served as a starting point for increased South-South dialogue. The diversity of the delegates’ fields, from cultural renewal and development to youth resilience and social innovation, allowed for a diversity of perspectives in addressing deep-rooted mistrust and challenges faced in the preservation of heritage and cultural identity. The program included plenary sessions, breakout groups, and site visits, which allowed for extensive dialogue concerning art and its unique ability to transform a culture and aid in rebuilding a society. Download the report as a PDF
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Living Arts in Post Conflict Contexts Forum: Practices, Partnerships, Possibilities
Tuol Sleng Museum - picture by Phalinn Ooi
Living Arts in Post Conflict Contexts Forum: Practices, Partnerships, Possibilities
Patrick Wilson 
A landmark collaboration with Cambodian Living Arts and Salzburg Global Seminar Living Arts in Post Conflict Contexts Forum: Practices, Partnerships, Possibilities took place between March 10 to 12 in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The three day event, sponsored by the Prince Claus Fund for Culture and Development, connected arts activators and change makers from twenty countries and drew together insights from Salzburg Global's multi-year programs on Culture, the Arts and Society, Holocaust Education and Genocide Prevention, and the Young Cultural Innovators Forum.  Just over 40 years ago, the Khmer Rouge regime launched its genocidal regime in which nearly 2 million Cambodians died – including 90% of the artists working in the country. In 2016, with 60% of the country’s population under 25, Cambodia’s first post-genocide generation has the opportunity to work with and through the arts to rebuild community, renew unique cultural traditions, and foster resilience and economic innovation. This three-day workshop addressed critical challenges faced by many countries during and after mass atrocities by exploring ways to overcome mistrust, preserve heritage and collective identity, and build supportive partnerships with government and other organizations.  Participants created the basis for an international network of advocates using the arts to transform pre and post conflict societies, advanced the notion of culture as a vehicle for peace and promoted dialogue as a driver for inclusive development. In addition to the workshop, Salzburg Global hosted a special evening event at Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum entitled "Place of Memory." The museum is a former high school where some 17,000 people were imprisoned and tortured during the Khmer Rouge regime from its rise to power in 1975 to its fall in 1979. Panelists, including Salzburg Global Vice President and Chief Program Officer Claire Shine, guided discussions that were informed by Salzburg Global's highly-respected work on Holocaust and Genocide education and remembrance, through which we have built a major international network to foster dialogue, promote tolerance, and share knowledge and resources. Both Salzburg Global and Cambodia Living Arts will be posting more information on our respective sites and are proud to have partnered together to create a means of dialogue and networking to aid conflict transformation and avoid the mistakes of our pasts. For more information see: www.salzburgglobal.org/go/Fellow56
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International Holocaust Remembrance Day Commemorated by Fellows
International Holocaust Remembrance Day Commemorated by Fellows
Patrick Wilson 
Today marks International Holocaust Remembrance Day to commemorate victims of the Nazi-led genocide which resulted in the estimated deaths of 6 million Jews, 2 million Romani, 250,000 of both mentally and physically handicapped people and 9,000 homosexual men.  The commemoration marks the day in 1945 that the largest Nazi death camp, Auschwitz-Birkenau, was liberated by Soviet troops. In partnership with the US Holocaust Memorial Museum, Salzburg Global Seminar has hosted several sessions dedicated to Holocaust Education and Genocide Prevention. Fellows of Holocaust and Genocide Education: Sharing Experience Across Borders, the most recent session in the multi-year series, will join with many other people across the world to mark International Holocaust Remembrance Day. In Ecuador, Sol Paz de Hecht, coordinator of the Manuel Antonio Muñoz Borrero Center for the Study of the Holocaust, Human Rights and Recent Genocides (MAMB), will mark the day through an event hosted together with the Jewish community of Ecuador, the Israeli Embassy, the Albert Einstein School in Quito, the Universidad de Las Américas and the United Nations System in Ecuador. The event will be livestreamed today starting at 16:30 CET at this link: www.udla.edu.ec/eventoslive  Fumiko Ishioka, director of the Tokyo Holocaust Education Resource Centre, and her team have been working on several events over the past weeks. In Tokyo, an event was hosted with 70 university students around the UN-led theme "The Holocaust and Human Dignity." They were joined by Holocaust survivor Janos Cegledy from Budapest, Hungary who has lived in Tokyo for 30 years. He had originally been contacted by the Centre in 1998 but didn’t wish to speak about his experiences, however after 18 years he finally agreed to join and share his experiences with the students. Cegledy joined with the students for a viewing of the international award-winning Hungarian film Son of Saul. The 2015 film portrays a Hungarian-Jewish prisoner in Auschwitz who works as a Sonderkommando member, the prisoners in charge of burning the dead, and his attempts to find a Rabbi to give the body of a young boy a clandestine burial. You can view pictures and read more about the event at this link: npokokoro.wix.com/auschwitz71#!2015/c1mp6 Ishioka also travelled to the US for several events. The Centre's educational program Hana’s Suitcase had its stage production premiere in Seattle. The production, written by Emil Sher, documents the history and discovery by Ishioka of the historical relic. She will also be giving a talk at the University of Washington where she is to receive a Distinguished Service Award for her work on Holocaust education. In Seattle, Ishioka was joined by an Auschwitz survivor and Hana's brother, George Brady, for a live Google Hangout session. The whole stream of the conversation can be viewed here: www.youtube.com/watch?v=RoPR-IIdEIQ Further to these events in the US and Japan, Ishioka is leading a study group tour to Europe, spending 11 days visiting Warsaw, Krakow, Auschwitz, Prague, Vienna, and Amsterdam. Ishioka hopes to share some of the experiences and knowledge acquired from past Salzburg Global sessions with the group when they arrive in Austria. In South Africa, Salzburg Global Fellow Tali Nates, director of the Johannesburg Holocaust and Genocide Centre, in collaboration with the United Nations Information Centre, the Cape Town Holocaust Center and the Ditsong National Museum of Military History, will host a presentation by Professor Dina Porat on The Individual in Historic Turning Points: Abba Kovner and Lithuanian Jewry as a Test Case on January 27 in Johannesburg. Ahead of this event, the Johannesburg Centre also held a special education event this morning for 250 Grade 9 learners from underprivileged schools, also around the year's theme of "The Holocaust and Human Dignity." In addition to her work in commemorating the Holocaust, Nates also contributed a chapter to “God, Faith & Identity from the Ashes in The Holocaust in History and Memory” last year. You can view information and interviews from our past Session on Holocaust Education and Genocide Prevention here: www.salzburgglobal.org/go/535 Further information on the multi-year series is available here: holocaust.salzburgglobal.org
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Report now online International Responses to Crimes Against Humanity - The Challenge of North Korea
Report now online International Responses to Crimes Against Humanity - The Challenge of North Korea
Salzburg Global Seminar staff 
The report from the Salzburg Global symposium International Responses to Crimes Against Humanity: The Challenge of North Korea, part of the Salzburg Initiative on Holocaust Education and Genocide Prevention is now available is now available online to read, download and share. In June 2015, Salzburg Global Seminar, with support from the National Endowment for Democracy and the Open Society Foundation, convened the symposium in Salzburg to address how the international community should respond to the crimes against humanity perpetrated in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK, or North Korea). As this newly published report shows, there is no consensus on what should be done – neither about what is most likely to bring about positive change for the people of North Korea “today”, nor about how to provide a modicum of justice for the millions of victims, whether living or already perished. These goals, while intertwined, often lead to rather different opinions on what is most likely to be effective. Among the diverse experts that convened for the Salzburg symposium, there was a broad range of opinion spread across a continuum of possible actions from a very strong accountability stance to one that gives priority to engagement and cooperation. The report seeks to provide a summary of many of the key points raised, highlight the diverse perspectives expressed, and reflect the range of strategies discussed, without suggesting there was unanimity around any of the recommendations or cataloging a complete record of the very deep and complex discussions that were held. This is a glimpse, at best, into the range of issues and opinions that were examined and shared over a very intense five day gathering – but one that can help elucidate core challenges related to the case of the DPRK and highlight various concrete strategies that are being, or could be, adopted in an effort to improve the lives of people living in North Korea. Download the report as a PDF
Salzburg Global Seminar is grateful to our program partners, the National Endowment for Democracy and the Open Society Foundation, and our other partners for their generous support of Session 556 and to the Citizens Alliance for North Korean Human Rights for their programmatic co-operation.
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Kofi A. Annan,  Secretary-General of the United Nations, 1997-2006

Honorary President, Salzburg Initiative on Holocaust Education and Genocide Prevention